Words new to me: драбант
The word драбант ‘bodyguard’ comes, via Polish and Czech drabant, from German Drabant. Cf. English trabant; трабант also exists in Russian. According to Russian Wikipedia (and other online sources seem to confirm it), the word was used to describe certain soldiers for False Dmitry I, “consisting initially of Poles he brought with him, and later of hired foreigners.” It comes up in book 1, chapter 8 of Leskov’s No Way Out (Некуда, 1864), between a reference to Marina Mniszech and a chapter about a Polish character, Justyn Pomada.
Looking back at book 1 from book 2, chapter 20, where I am now, I see the Polish theme was there all along. That’s not surprising for 1864, or for Leskov anytime, but there’s really a lot. One of the revolutionaries in the novel is a Pole and a disciplined puppetmaster who speaks now in Russian with Polish borrowings, now in Polish transliterated into Cyrillic, now in Polish in its native alphabet. Another character
claims to be a Jew from Berdychiv in present-day Ukraine, but Doctor Rozanov cleverly speaks Polish to him and gets him to reveal the (apparently quite important) fact that he’s actually a Polish Jew [Sorry, I garbled this: he claims to be from Courland in present-day Latvia, and Rozanov insists he is a Polish Jew from Berdychiv or elsewhere in western Ukraine]. Russian revolutionaries suddenly come out with Polonisms like нехай (niechaj) instead of пусть ‘let, may,’ as I understand it to show their contact with their Polish comrades. Even the narrator uses a few, like досконально ‘thoroughly.’ I’m not sure how to take that yet. [Though see comments by Languagehat and Alexei K. below: my instincts on what is or isn’t a Polonism are probably off.]