Where were the women with male pseudonyms?
[Update: many thanks to Languagehat for useful additions, several of which have been incorporated into the main post – see comments below.]
Sof’ia Engel’gardt (Ol’ga N.) and Natal’ia Shalikova (E. Narskaia) chose female-sounding pseudonyms. Engel’gardt, after her marriage, could have signed her own name as the ambiguous “S. Engel’gardt” but opted for the markedly female “Ol’ga N.” This made me try to think of any nineteenth-century Russian women writers with male pseudonyms, in the tradition of George Sand or George Eliot or Currer, Ellis, and Acton Bell. I know Zinaida Gippius sometimes signed her works “Anton Krainii,” but if we think of her [and Vera Gedroits, see comments] as from the twentieth century, who’s left? The only one I could think of was Avdot’ia Panaeva (N. Stanitskii).
On further inspection I found three more (the Khvoshchinskaia sisters), plus one (Soboleva) who wrote as “V. Samoilovich,” which could be a man’s or woman’s name but an unknowing reader might assume was a man’s. [Update 1/2/2014: another one I left out is Marko Vovchok.]
The lists below probably have mistakes – I bet some of these writers used pseudonyms I don’t know about, and of course there are women writers not on this list. I’m tempted toward this hypothesis: women writers born from the late eighteenth century to about 1807 tended to use their own names; those born after 1808 often, but not always, used pseudonyms; those born in the 1820s and early 1830s were most likely to choose a male pseudonym. If that holds up it would suggest that the 1840s and 1850s were the time male pseudonyms were most attractive, which could reflect the popularity of Sand (1804-1876) in Russia then.
Also, female pseudonyms seem popular among women with foreign surnames or aristocratic backgrounds.
Published under one or more male pseudonyms:
Avdot’ia Iakovlevna Panaeva, née Brianskaia (1820-1893), pseudonym: N. N. Stanitskii
Nadezhda Dmitrievna Khvoshchinskaia, married name Zaionchkovskaia (1822 or 1824-1889), sister of S. D. and P. D. Khvoshchinskaia, pseudonyms: V. Krestovskii,* V. Porechnikov, N. Vozdvizhenskii, N. Kh.
Sof’ia Dmitrievna Khvoshchinskaia (1824-1865), sister of N. D. and P. D. Khvoshchinskaia, pseudonym: Ivan Vesen’ev
Praskov’ia Dmitrievna Khvoshchinskaia (1832-?), sister of N. D. and S. D. Khvoshchinskaia, pseudonym: S. Zimarov
Mariia Aleksandrovna Vilinskaia (1833-1907), also Markovich by her first husband and Lobach-Zhuchenko by her second, pseudonym: Marko Vovchok
Published anonymously or under ambiguous pseudonyms:
Sofiia Pavlovna Soboleva (1840-1884), pseudonym: V. Samoilovich
Published under one or more female pseudonyms:
Countess Evdokiia Petrovna Rostopchina (sometimes spelled Rastopchina) (1811-1858), pseudonyms: D-a, R-a, A., —a
Elena Andreevna Gan, née Fadeeva (1814-1842), pseudonym: Zeneida R–va
Elizaveta Vasil’evna Salias-de-Turnemir, née Sukhovo-Kobylina (1815-1892), sister of A. V. Sukhovo-Kobylin, pseudonym: Evgeniia Tur
Princess Natal’ia Petrovna Shalikova (died 1878), pseudonym: E. Narskaia
Nadezhda Stepanovna Sokhanskaia (1823 or 1825-1884), pseudonym: Kokhanovskaia
Ekaterina Vladimirovna Novosil’tseva (died 1885), sister of S. V. Engel’gardt, pseudonym: T. Tolycheva
Ol’ga Petrovna Martynova (1832-1896), pseudonym: Pavlova Ol’ga
Iuliia Ivanovna Iakovleva, married name Vilenkina (1858-1910), pseudonym: Bezrodnaia
Published exclusively or almost exclusively under her own name:
Princess Ekaterina Romanovna Dashkova, née Vorontsova (1743-1810)
Ekaterina Sergeevna Urusova (1747-after 1817), cousin of M. M. Kheraskov
Anna Petrovna Bunina (1775-1828)
Anna Alekseevna Volkova (1781-1834)
Nadezhda Andreevna Durova (1783-1866) – note that Durova used male pseudonyms as a soldier, but AFAIK not as a writer
Princess Zinaida Aleksandrovna Volkonskaia, née Belosel’skaia (1789-1862)
Mariia Semenovna Zhukova (1805-1855)
Karolina Karlovna Pavlova, née Ianish (1807-1893)
Irina Pavlovna Volkova, née Debil’ (active 1854-1861)
Iuliia Valerianovna Zhadovskaia (1824-1883)
Ol’ga Andreevna Shapir (1850-1916)
Valentina Iovovna Dmitrievna (1859-1947)
Published under a mix of female and male pseudonyms:
(no one I’ve found)
* There really was a male writer named Vsevolod Krestovskii (1840-1895). I assume the older Nadezhda Khvoshchinskaia started using “V. Krestovskii” when Vsevolod was still a boy.